AST (Serum Glutamic-Oxalocetic Transaminase - SGOT ), ALT (Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase - SGPT) and GGT (Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase) and Alkaline Phosphatase are: abbreviations for proteins called enzymes which help all the chemical activities within cells to take place. Injury to cells release these enzymes into the blood. They are found in muscles, the liver and heart. Damage from alcohol and a number of diseases are reflected in high values.
Hint: Enzymes always end in "ase." Transaminase, Transpeptidase and Phosphatase.

Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found primarily in bones and the liver. Expected values are higher for those who are growing (children and pregnant women) or when damage to bones or liver has occurred or with gallstones. Low values are probably not significant.

GGT (Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase) is also elevated in liver disease, particularly with obstruction of bile ducts. Unlike the alkaline phosphatase it is not elevated with bone growth or damage.

AST/SGOT, ALT/ SGPT . . . AST (Serum Glutamic-Oxalocetic Transaminase - SGOT ), ALT (Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase - SGPT) and GGT (Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase)are also liver and muscle enzymes. They may be elevated from liver problems, hepatitis, excess alcohol ingestion, muscle injury and recent heart attack.

LDH (Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase) is the enzyme present in all the cells in the body. Anything which damages cells, including blood drawing itself, will raise amounts in the blood. If blood is not processed promptly and properly, high levels may occur. If all values except LDH are within expected ranges, it is probably a processing error and does not require further evaluation.

Bilirubin is a pigment removed from the blood by the liver. Low values are of no concern. If slightly elevated above the expected ranges, but with all other enzymes (LDH, GOT, GPT, GGT) within expected values, it is probably a condition known as Gilberts syndrome and is not significant.

CPK (creatine phosphokinase) is an enzyme which is very useful for diagnosing diseases of the heart, brain and skeletal muscle. A CPK is a blood test that measures creatine phosphokinase (CPK). When the total CPK level is substantially elevated, it usually indicates injury or stress to one or more of these areas. This enzyme is the first to be elevated after a heart attack (3 to 4 hours). If CPK is high in the absence of heart muscle injury, this is a strong indication of skeletal muscle disease.

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